MAC is a Multi-purpose chamber that will be used for atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics and Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI). It can house different types of targets and can be equipped with a range of diagnostic tools.

MAC: Experimental station for AMO science and Coherent Diffractive Imaging


Maria Krikunova
Eva Klimesova
Andreas Roos Holt
Ziaul Hoque

Brief description of the available set up:

The MAC end station is a Multipurpose end station for AMO (Atomic, Molecular and Optical) and CDI (Coherent Diffractive Imaging) science. The design of the MAC vacuum chamber is similar to that of the LAMP chamber in the AMO station at LCLS and the CAMP chamber now located at FLASH, DESY.


Spectrometers and detection systems

At present the following spectrometers and detection systems are operational or in the commissioning pipeline:

  • Electron and ion Time of Flight spectrometers (in house development)
  • Velocity Map Imaging (VMI 75 mm MCP with a phosphor screen imaged by a camera with 166 fps 1936 x 1216 pix Sony CMOS 1/1.2″ sensor 72 dB (~ 12 bit resolution)) with ns gated imaging detector (Velocitas/Photec)


Sample delivery

At present the following sample delivery/handling systems are operational or in the commissioning pipeline:

  • Fixed target stage
  • Gas target – either needle source or a molecular beam (cryo-cooled Even Lavie nozzle).
  • Cluster source – for rare-gas and water clusters with sizes from few nm to 100s nm.
  • Aerosol injection systems – GDVN aerosol injector or Electrospray Ionization.


Time-preserving monochromator:

4 sets of gratings covering the range (1) 10 to 28 eV, (2) 25 to 54 eV, (3) 51 to 98 eV and (4) 86 to 121 eV. Manually selectable exit apertures 50, 100, 200 and 300 mm.


HHG focusing

Ellipsoidal mirror with 1:4.8 imaging ratio. Focal spot verified in commissioning experiments:  40×70 um

Figure: Left – background corrected optimized focal spot in MAC chamber. Right – raw focal spot.


Figure: Left – background corrected optimized focal spot in MAC chamber. Right – raw focal spot.

NIR focusing

90deg off-axis parabola with focal length of 101.6 mm. Hole in the parabola mirror allows collinear focusing of HHG and IR beam.


Available NIR/HHG delay range

Approximately 3 ns, covered by a 1 m delay line



Scientific Reports 9 (1), 8851 (2019)

The MAC end station during installation in the E1 experimental hall.

Model of the MAC station with two different focal geometries. One using a 10 degrees grazing incidence ellipsoidal mirror (current geometry) and another utilizing a 11 degrees angle of incidence Off Axis Parabola (optional geometry).

Model of the MAC station on the beamline location. In this image the station is equipped with the aerosol injector mounted from the top of the main chamber and a cluster source with a cryo-cooled Even Lavie nozzle mounted from the side.